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ГБОУ СОШ № 298
Учитель: Мирошниченко Ирина Алексеевна
УМК Spotlight
The 8th form

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Tornadoes are natural disasters characterized by a dark, funnel-shaped cloud made of rotating winds. The most violent tornadoes can reap massive amounts of destruction, with wind speeds that can reach 250 to 300 mph.
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Tornadoes are ranked on a scale based on how much damage they cause, such as overturned cars and destroyed buildings. By knowing this scale, you can better understand what kind of damage a certain tornado has caused.
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Violent winds created by thunderstorms, tornadoes look like funnels and rotate around an area at high speeds.
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Tornadoes can be so fast and strong that when they appear on the ground, they can damage anything in the way, including buildings and cars.
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. Tornadoes can be extremely frightening for children, but possessing some information about why tornadoes happen and how they can protect themselves may prove reassuring.
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Tornadoes are usually the result of thunderstorms, which happen when warm air and cool air from different parts of the country meet in the atmosphere.
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When the wind picks up speed and changes direction, this can cause a spinning effect to occur in the atmosphere, which is invisible to onlookers but can be a few miles wide.
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This effect starts off in a horizontal direction, but soon becomes vertical thanks to rising air. Tornadoes are then created inside this area of rotation.
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When and Where
Tornadoes are more common at certain times of year; for example, in the southern U.S., tornadoes are more likely to appear between March and May.
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Speed and Damage
The amount of damage a tornado can cause depends on how fast it’s traveling. The speed of a tornado is measured on a scale, and given a number, from zero to five, to indicate its strength, with five being the strongest.
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A F0 tornado travels at between 40 and 72 miles an hour, and will generally cause only minor damage to roofs of houses, for example. A F5 tornado, on the other hand, can travel at as much as 318 miles an hour and can blow whole buildings away.
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Individuals should listen to advice given by local authorities about tornadoes. If a tornado is sighted, a warning will be given and families should shelter in a place without windows until it’s safe to come out again.
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It’s useful for individuals to know ahead of time where to head to in the event of a tornado and to consider what they should take into the shelter with them; for instance, a family pet shouldn’t be forgotten.
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Most weak tornadoes last 10 minutes or less, traveling short distances. Violent tornadoes have been known to last for hours and a few have traveled more than 100 miles.